Structural Design

Structural Design

A façade typically represents 30 per cent of the total development cost. The taller and more complex the building becomes, the figures escalate. A key component of the cost is the thickness of glass, framing members and size of brackets – all which are largely dictated by the wind loads that the building is subjected to.

Earthquake load

Wind Load

Gravity load

Impact load

Blast load

Thermal load

Computing projects

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Shanghai Tower

The second tallest structure in the world, Shanghai Tower, China, 632 m
Max/Min Cp wind pressure coefficient, velocity field, and streamlines,
The tallest twisted building in the world,
The tallest structure in China,

Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC)

Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC), China, 492 m
Building function: Mixed-use (office, hotel)
Architect: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates; Irie Miyake Architects and Engineers
Structural Engineer: Leslie E. Robertson Associates
Structural System: Outriggered frame system/composite
Case study performed in RWIND 2 by Dlubal Software,
LES/DES turbulence model, 14 million cells
Surface Cp coefficient contour and diagram through black line for time layers + velocity field around the tower,

Burj Al Arab

The world’s tallest structure incorporating a membrane facade, Burj Al Arab, Dubai, 321 m
Wind pressure coefficient, velocity field, and streamlines,
For important structures such as bridges, towers, stadiums,…, we need to closely monitor the performance of structures by using sensors like anemometers, accelerometers, temperature sensors, and strain gauges. Finding suitable locations for placing sensors can help us to collect better data. In wind simulation, we can predict the most critical areas that probably experience damage (related to structural elements and facade systems).

Software: RWIND Simulation by Dlubal software

New Yourk

City of skyscrapers, Best of United States,

Wind simulation in RWIND 2.01 Pro,
This is a comprehensive analysis in wind simulation and it is possible to achieve the following options,
Which structures absorb more wind load,
Wind comfort in pedestrian areas and around buildings,
Velocity field and wind pressure coefficient for the whole domain,
Prediction of which areas would be in air pollution zone,
and …

Willis Tower

Willis Tower, Chicago, United States, 527 m
The tallest building in the world from 1974 until 1998,
Software: RWIND Simulation by Dlubal Software
Velocity field, wind pressure coefficient, and streamlines,
Verification example:
Email address:
More info:

Allianz Arena Stadium

Case of critical uplift for the structural design of ETFE cushions under one-way FSI coupling with steady-state RANS CFD simulation for the most modern stadium in the world (and my favorite!), Allianz Arena Stadium,
Home of Bayern Munich, Germany,
More info:
Basic wind speed: 25 m/s,
Wind profile and turbulence intensity were created base on Terrian 3,
Mesh information: 20 million cells
– First Fig: Wind pressure distribution and diagram for the vertical plane of the stadium plus ETFE results contours under critical uplift,
– Second Fig: Wind streamlines for selected points and ETFE deformation,
– Third and Fourth Fig: Velocity field and wind streamlines,

Volgograd Arena, Russia

Identification of critical uplift area (Black Zones) for PVC/ETFE tensile membrane surface (Volgograd Arena, Russia),

Berliner Fernsehturm

The tallest structure in Germany, Berliner Fernsehturm, 368 m
Max/Min Cp wind pressure coefficient, velocity field, and streamlines,
In aerodynamic optimization, one of the target parameters is Cp, so less (absolute) Cp value leads to less wind pressure and more aerodynamically geometry.
The tower has become one of the most prominent symbols of the country and is often in the establishing shot of films set in Berlin, alongside monuments such as the Brandenburg Gate, the Berlin Victory Column, and the Reichstag building. It is also one of the ten most popular attractions in Germany with more than 1,000,000 visitors every year. (Ref:

Mercedes-Benz Arena

Mercedes-Benz Arena, Stuttgart, Germany,
Home of VfB Stuttgart,
Cp wind pressure coefficient, velocity field, and streamlines,

Eiffel Tower

Which zones experience high intensity of turbulence around the Eiffel Tower?

The diagram of wind speed variation during the time and distance can show clearly which areas are prone to high-intensity turbulence. (compare the trend behind and front of the tower)

Software: RWIND 2 by Dlubal Software

Verification example:

Tokyo Skytre

Case study: Wind simulation on Tokyo Skytree (634 m) using Transient LES/DES Turbulence model,

Wind pressure coefficient, velocity field, and streamlines,

Software: RWIND 2 by Dlubal Software

More info:
Verification example:
Email address:
Architect: Nikken Sekkei
Developer: Tobu Railway
Main contractor: Obayashi Corporation